What are Motherboard and main components explained

Motherboard is the primary circuit board that connects with all PC hardware, distributes electricity and provides peripheral connections with the CPU. Peripherals are storage, memory (RAM), and graphics card. Motherboard is the most important component in a PC.

Major Components of Motherboard

Processor Socket

This places the CPU – the central processing unit. All consumer level boards have one CPU socket. These sockets are designed for a specific series of Intel or AMD CPU. These sockets are based on generation of CPU and the number of pins in the CPU array.

Land Grid Array or LGA is the pins on the socket. This connects with conductor on CPU. Example, LGA 1200, LGA 1151, LGA 1155, LGA 1150, etc. More about CPUs here.


Chipset is the backbone of the motherboard. It earlier used to be South-bridge in the motherboard. Chipset relays communication of storage devices, peripherals, PCI lanes with CPU. Modern chipset includes new features such as Audio, Wifi, Bluetooth, etc. Higher end chipsets can feature more PCIe slots, and USB ports along with latest hardware. More about PCI here. Also, about USB here. Chipset supports the external SSD. More about SSDs here.

All motherboards available in the market are named after chipsets. Latest chipset includes Z490, H410, B460 and H470. All these are new in 2020. Earlier generation chipset includes Z390, B360, B365, H310 etc. Chipset may or may not work with the previous generation CPU due to changes in the socket pins.

Form Factor

Motherboard comes with standard sizes. These are defined by the Form Factor. All motherboard manufacturers develop all their boards based on these standard sizes only. Listed below are the form factors available:-


BIOS stands for Basic Input/Output System. This loads before operating system boots up. So, it loads before start up of the CPU. It is responsible for starting up and testing all hardware connections.

Majorly all BIOS are Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI). It is speedier, supporting modern GUI, and can do larger storage partitions faster. It also helps in overclocking of CPU.

Display Connectors

These are the ports for video output connectors. Use of display connectors are based on the CPU and Graphics Card used. More about graphics card here. More about CPU here. Following are the display ports available on the current system :-

Expansion Slots

These are the PCI Express lanes that connects the peripherals with motherboard on a very high speed connections. More about PCI and PCI express here. Also, PCI slots supports SSDs. More about SSDs here.

Let’s explore the Gigabyte Motherboard here.

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